Apparition des hominoïdes :                                               

une Mediterranean Island Story

 

Apparition des hominoïdes :               une Mediterranean Island Story............................................ 1

1) l’Apparition des hominoïdes : l’hypothèse insulaire..................................................................... 2

Apparition du pouce et scénario de l’apparition des hominidés................................................... 2

Etapes clés du Scénario :.......................................................................................................... 3

2) Dispersal patterns of Eurasian hominoids:.................................................................................. 5

3) Focus on outstanding Primats.................................................................................................. 12

Gigantopithecus...................................................................................................................... 12

Dryopithecus.......................................................................................................................... 15

General presentation........................................................................................................... 15

Dryopithecus: New results of Hominoid research in the Carpathian Basin............................. 16

Oreopithecus bambolii............................................................................................................ 18

Toumaï................................................................................................................................... 23

Austrolopithecus boisei........................................................................................................... 27

Austrolopithecus robustus....................................................................................................... 28

Austrolopithecus aethiopicus................................................................................................... 29

Homo Ergaster....................................................................................................................... 32

Homo Erectus........................................................................................................................ 33

Synthesis of Miocene in Europe.............................................................................................. 35

4) Phylogenetic Tree................................................................................................................... 37

Family Pongidae..................................................................................................................... 37

Family Hominidae................................................................................................................... 38

5) Primates classification............................................................................................................. 39

6) General primat chart............................................................................................................... 51

 


1) l’Apparition des hominoïdes : l’hypothèse insulaire

 

Source Evolution de l’homme :

site http://planete.simiesque.free.fr/planeteSimiesque/simiens/physique.php

Primates/simiens/ Catarhiniens/Hominoïdes/Hominidés/Hominiens/homo/homo sapiens

Ordre/groupe/Super famille/superfamille/famille /sous famille /genre/espèce

Oreopithecus bambolii http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/96/1/313

Assèchement  de la Méditerranée

http://www.mnhn.fr/mnhn/geo/messinien.html

et

http://www.mnhn.fr/mnhn/geo/cenozoique.html#Climats%20et%20circulations

 

 Apparition du pouce et scénario de l’apparition des hominidés

 

La période :  le Miocene 8 millions d’années. L’espèce remarquable l’Oreopithecus bambolii, une espèce bipède, dont le rapport  main sur poids  réduit comme pour les hominidés indique que cette main était plus utilisé pour la  manipulation que pour la locomotion) 

Son lieu de vie : l’Italie et  la Sardaigne alors isolés du reste du continent ; la pression sélective sur une île a pu conduire à développer une faculté de préhension efficace avec une force suffisante, ce qui n’est pas le cas des grands singes, afin de libérer la main de la locomotion et de faciliter la cueillette.

 

Ce scénario de développment est le produit des grands facteurs environnmentaux que sont le climat et la géologie.

Le Miocène moyen marque une nouvelle étape majeure dans l’évolution vers les conditions modernes. Vers 22 Ma le courant circum - antarctique a déjà acquis des caractéristiques proches de celles de l’Actuel bien que d’intensité plus faible. Entre 17 et 16,5 millions d’années de nombreuses espèces de grands mammifères passent d’Afrique en Eurasie. A partir de 15 Ma, des couches de glace permanente s’installent sur l’Antarctique et le volume des glaces s’accroît fortement jusqu’à 11-10 Ma, recouvrant les parties est, puis ouest de ce continent, mais avec des fluctuations marquées ce qui est un trait majeur de cette période. Il s’ensuit un important abaissement du niveau océanique. A cette époque, la structure thermique de l’océan est déjà marquée par de fortes différences entre les eaux profondes et de surface. Cette réorganisation des circulations océaniques et le renforcement des systèmes d'alizés induisent une intensification des systèmes d'upwellings (remontées d’eaux profondes fertiles) ce qui se traduit notamment par le dépôt de couches de diatomites autour du Pacifique. Malgré d’importantes fluctuations, la calotte glaciaire antarctique atteindra son développement maximum au Miocène terminal, entre 6 et 5 Ma, avec un volume de 50 % supérieur aux maxima antérieurs. De cette période pourrait dater un début de glaciation, au moins saisonnière, de l’Océan Arctique et de l’Alaska. Le niveau océanique est plus bas, avec des pics d’abaissement maximum au Tortonien et pendant le Messinien supérieur au cours duquel la chute a pu atteindre une cinquantaine de mètres. L’aridité s’accroît dans l’hémisphère nord et c’est le moment où la Méditerranée connaît l’épisode de la crise de salinité dans l’évolution de laquelle les fluctuations glacio-eustatiques du niveau océanique ont joué un rôle important.
Au Pliocène, le climat se réchauffe de nouveau jusque vers 3 Ma. La calotte glaciaire antarctique se réduit de manière significative. Un nouvel épisode de refroidissement général intervient au Pliocène terminal, à partir de 2,6-2,3 Ma, en même temps que l’englacement des régions arctiques. Le refroidissement affecte l’Europe et l’aridité s’accentue dans de nombreuses régions, notamment en Afrique. Une végétation de type toundra caractérise l’Europe du nord tandis que des conditions steppiques s’installent en domaine méditerranéen. Avec la fermeture de l’isthme de Panama, le Gulf-Stream commence à se mettre en place.

 


Etapes clés du Scénario :

                      -  Eocène 55 Ma apparition de l’ordre des primates et dissémination mondiale

-         -40 Ma Séparation de l’Australie et de l’Antarctique : formation du courant circum-polaire froid  qui isole l’antarctique

-         Poussée africaine provoquant la dislocation de la partie méridionale de l’Eurasie et son enfoncement sous forme de bassins ébauchant la méditerranée, la partie nord formant les Alpes et les Pyrénées

-         -18 MA séparation de la Corse - Sardaigne de la péninsule Ibérique ouverture de la méditerranée occidentale : développement insulaire de primates

-17 à -16,5 millions d’années de nombreuses espèces de grands mammifères passent d’Afrique en Eurasie (Hominoidea, Deinotherium, Bunolistriodon, Chalicotheriinae, Brachypotherium, Orycteropus) d’Eurasie vers l’Afrique (hypodontines,

Amphicyon, Hemicyon) Entre l’Asie de l’ouest et le reste de l’Asie (Democricetodon, Megacricetodon, Cricetodon, Tamias, Pliospalax, Alloptox,Beliajevina, Tethytragus, Turcocerus, Schizochoerus, petauristids, hominoids) d’Europe vers l ‘asie de l’ouest  (Palaeomeryx, Heteroprox, Hoploaceratherium, Protictitherium, Percrocuta, Pseudaelurus,

Ischrictis, eomyids, sciurids, and glirids). Et de l’asie vers l’Amérique du Nord (petauristids, eomyids and Pseudaelurus)

-         Dryopithecus -16,2 Ma trouvé en Anatolie

-         -15 Ma formation de l’islandis sur l’antarctique

Entre le late Burdigalian (Karpatian) dispersions et le Miocene tardif, peu de migration events entre l’Eurasie et l’Afrique seulement Percrocuta and possibly Kenyapithecus

-         -14 MA Premier hominidé reconnu (en Afrique): Ramapithèque (= Kenyapithecus ?)

-         -9MA ouverture de la mer Tyrrhénienne . Phase d’important volcanisme dans les Apennins

-         Island Story (Corse-Sardaigne)

-         -8 MA Oreopithecus bambolii forme bipède doué d’une faculté de préhension efficace

-         Eustatisme,  fluctuations verticales du niveau du plan d’eau océanique. Abaissement de l’ordre de 50 mètres du niveau de l’océan atlantique : aridité de l’hémisphère nord

-         Période messinienne entre -6,9 et -5,3 Ma

-          - 6 Ma Développement maximum de la calotte antarctique

-          -6 à -5,4 évaporation massive de la Méditerranée : assèchements / immersions successives de la Méditerranée

-         - 5,4 et -5,3 environnement saumâtres et lacustres qui s’achève par l’ouverture du détroit de Gibraltar.

-         Les formes  de primates insulaires peuvent rejoindre le continent africain entre -6,5 et -5,3 Ma

-         ~7 Ma Toumaï Sahelanthropus Tchadensis

-         - 6 Ma Orrorin Tugenensis

-         - 4,5 millions d’années forme australopithèque

-         -2,6 à -2,3 Ma  Refroidissement et aridité africaine : la Rift Valley devient un sanctuaire

-         East Side Story

-         -2,5 Homo Habilis

-         -2 Ma fermeture de l’isthme de Panama formation du Gulf Stream. Augmentation de la pluviosité et épanouissement des savanes africaines

-         -75000 ans premières parures à base de coquillages (Afrique du sud)

-         -74000 ans  explosion du volcan Toba en Indonésie. Refroidissement majeur.

-         - 72000 ans invention des vêtements (Afrique du sud)

-         La population humaine tombe vers 2000 à 3000 individus et dont  peut-être  seulement 40 to 600 femmes.

-         -60000 ans migration de l’homo sapiens hors d’Afrique

-         -50000 ans l’homme en Australie rencontre avec les descendants de l’homo erectus : Homo floresiensis  

-         -45000 ans l’homme en Asie centrale

-         - 40000 ans l’homme en europe / rencontre avec les néantherdaliens

-         Début de la disparition des grands mammifères

-         - 27000 ans disparition des néantherdaliens

-         -17000 ans civilisation de clovis en Amérique venant de France

-         -12000 ans eruption volcanique : disparition des hommes de Flores.

-         L’homo sapiens unique représentant survivant du genre Homo.

 


2) Dispersal patterns of Eurasian hominoids:

Implications from Turkey

 

A key to understanding the complex pattern of hominoid dispersals, origins, and extinction is the

fossil evidence from Turkey. Miocene localities in Turkey are known to contain taxa from across

Eurasia and Africa, and even North America. Three or four separate hominoid clades are identified

in Anatolia, more than in any other place except Kenya. Each of these clades has its closest affinities

with hominoids from different continents. Hominoids disperse into Eurasia at the beginning of

MN 5, ahead of the Langhian transgression, probably as a result of the key adaptation of thick

occlusal enamel and robust jaws and teeth, first observed in Afropithecus and Heliopithecus from

Kenya and Saudi Arabia. Subtropical and mainly forested conditions encourage rapid dispersal and

diversification of hominoids in Eurasia, while trends toward more open conditions in sub-Saharan

Africa lead to the reduction in diversity and eventual extinction of African pre-modern hominoids.

Toward the end of the Vallesian, Eurasian hominoids undergo a series of extinction events that

begin in the northwestern end of their range (Dryopithecus from Western and Central Europe) and

end near the end of the Miocene in Southern China (Lufeng and Hudieliangzi, Yunnan Province).

Of the last surviving Eurasian hominoids, the Yunnan taxa appear to have affinities to Pongo while

the latest forms from Europe and western Asia are most closely related to the African apes and

humans. Localities in Turkey document the earliest evidence of hominoids in Eurasia, the spread

of hominoids across Eurasia, and, perhaps, the return to Africa in the Turolian of the common

ancestor of the African apes and humans.

 


 

Figure 1 A phylogeny of some hominoid taxa modified from Begun (2001). Griphopithecus is the outgroup to the Euhominoidea,

the clade that includes all living hominoids and all Eurasian fossil hominoids.The node leading to Kenyapithecus, Hylobates,

Oreopithecus and the Hominidae is unresolved.

 

Figure 2 Lingual (a) and occlusal (b) views of the Çandır

mandible. Note the massive corpus, doubled symphyseal tori

and broad, rounded molar cusps.

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Figure 3 Chronology of important middle Miocene hominoid localities in Eurasia. Chron (left column), and Mediterranean and

Central Paratethys ages (right column) correlations from Steininger (1999) and references therein (see also Begun et al. (2002)

and Heizmann & Begun (2001)).

 

Figure 4 Paleogeography and hominoid migration routes in pre-Langhian MN 5. Map modified from Rögl (1999).Tailless catarrhine

symbols represent localities in Anatolia (Pasalar and Çandır) and Germany (Engelswies). Squares represent localities in

Kenya (Kalodirr) and Saudi Arabia (Ad Dabtiyah) from which early Miocene hominoids with thickly enameled molars are known.

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Figure 5 Paleogeography and hominoid migration routes in post-Langhian MN 5-6. Map modified from Rögl (1999).Tailless

catarrhine symbols represent localities in Anatolia (Pasalar and Çandır) and Slovakia (Devínská Nová Ves).The ape grasping a

branch represents localities in the Siwalik Hills.The precise pattern of dispersal among these localities is not completely clear,

though the Anatolian and German sites are almost certainly older than the Slovakian one. Siwalik hominids may originate from a

Mediterranean source or from an African one.

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Figure 6 (a): Frontal view of the palate of a male of Ankarapithecus meteai. Note the broad and widely flared zygoma.

(b): Lateral view. Note the midfacial prognathism, with the nasal aperture margin projected anteriorly relative to the zygomatic.

(c): Occlusal view.

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Figure 7 Paleogeography and hominoid migration routes in the late middle and early late Miocene. Map modified from Rögl

(1999).The ape grasping a branch represents hominid localities in the Siwalik Hills, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Hungary,

Greece, and Turkey.There are no hominids in Africa at this time.

The middle Serravallian isolation of Eurasia from Africa may explain the absence of great apes south of Anatolia and west of south Asia at this time.

 

 

35


 

 

Figure 8 Paleogeography and hominoid migration routes in the late Miocene. Map modified from Rögl (1999). Hominids become

extinct in Eurasia at this time and first occur in Africa, suggesting a Eurasian origin for the African apes and humans. Symbols in

Africa represent 2 clades of knuckle-walking African apes (Gorilla and Pan) and fossil humans, the sister taxon to the latter.

While hominids are becoming extinct in most of Eurasia one or more populations manages to find refuge in southeast Asia (Pongo) and another in Africa (African apes and humans)

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3) Focus on outstanding Primats

Gigantopithecus

 


Sivapithecus (Ramapithecus)

 


Proconsul africanus

Proconsul africanus was a Miocene-era fossil found on Rusinga Island by Mary Leakey and her research team. Pieces of this fossil had been found before but Mary Leakey's find was more complete. The 18 million year old fossil is a possible ancestor of both great and lesser apes, and humans.

The fossil remains were found in Africa and based on postcranial pieces, Proconsul africanus was likely an arboreal quadruped.


Dryopithecus

General presentation

DRYOPITHECUS [Dryopithecus] , an extinct group of apes. Fossils about 20 million years old have been found in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Dryopithecus had a semierect posture and is generally believed to be ancestral to modern apes and man. Proconsul , a group of fossil apes that may have been the ancestor of the chimpanzee, is considered by some authorities to be a subgroup of Dryopithecus.

 

Today, the only non-human primate native to Europe is the Barbary macaque, which has extended its North African range to a small area including Gibraltar, on the southern coast of Iberia. The geographic ranges of living apes do not extend north of the tropics. Thus, it may be surprising that once Europe was the home to a considerable diversity of apes. With the warmer and wetter climate of the Miocene, Europe was an ideal habitat for early hominoids, and they extended across the continent from Spain to Turkey, as far north as Paris. What may be even more surprising than the great productivity of Europe for paleontologists seeking Miocene apes is that Europe possibly was the principal center of their evolution and home of the common ancestors of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas.

For the background to human evolution, the most important European fossil ape is Dryopithecus. The original European ape, Dryopithecus fontani was discovered in France in the 1850Õs. Among the first evidence for ancient primate evolution, these fossil remains have been joined in recent years by newer fossils excavated from Spain, Hungary, and as far east as the Caucasus. These newer sites have extended the sample of Dryopithecus to include relatively complete crania and a diversity of postcranial elements. All remains date to between 13 million and 10 million years ago, likely after the common ancestor of the Asian and African ape clades. The features of the cranial material of Dryopithecus are generally more similar to living African apes than to orangutans (Kordos and Begun, 2001), although fossil Sivapithecus and Dryopithecus are very similar to each other.

The initial dental discoveries of Dryopithecus identified it as a fossil ape on the basis of the pattern of cusps and grooves on its molar teeth, which is similar to the great apes and humans. With grooves between the cusps arranged in the form of a Y, this pattern is often called the Y-5 dental pattern. In addition to the phylogenetic significance of the molars, their form probably indicates that the basic dietary niche of more recent apes arose at their origin and initial radiation.

Other features link Dryopithecus to the living apes. The elbow joint was capable of a full range of extension, which is not possible in quadrupeds like monkeys. The face was downward-directed like living chimpanzees and gorillas, called klinorhynch, unlike orangutans and Sivapithecus (Begun, 2003). The tear ducts opened substantially anteriorly, with a relatively wide interorbital pillar, again like African apes and unlike orangutans. These features were probably the ancestral condition for the great apes, with the Asian apes being derived, so they do not necessarily show that Dryopithecus was ancestral to African apes and humans. Nevertheless, they illustrate the presence of almost every component of the ape anatomy in these Late Miocene fossils, which set the stage for the later rise of the hominids.


Dryopithecus: New results of Hominoid research in the Carpathian Basin

A B S T R A C T Within the dynamic tectonic realm of the Carpathian Basin five succesive primate

first appearance events has documented: Griphopithecus darwini and Pliopithecus (ca. 15 M

years), Dryopithecus carinthiacus (ca. 12.5 M years), Dryopithecus brancoi (= Rudapithecus

hungaricus) and Anapithecus hernyaki (ca. 10 M years), Mesopithecus pentelici (between 8 and

5.5 M years), and Dolicopithecus sp.(terminal Miocene and middle Pliocene). In 1998 an

associated femoral remains of adult Anapithecus were discovered at Rudabánya. RUD-184 has

a large and almost perfectly spherical head, a very long, antero-posteriorly compressed neck

and a robust, curved shaft with a pronounced gluteal line. A new cranium of Rudapithecus (=

Dryopithecus brancoi), RUD-200 (“Gabi”) were found in 1999 at Rudabánya. RUD-200 is the

first Dryopithecus cranial specimen preserving large portions of the face and neurocranium

with direct bone to bone contact. It shares the same great ape characters found in other

Dryopithecus from Rudabánya and elsewhere in Europe (dental proportions, labiolingually

thick incisors, compressed canines, elongated postcanines, no cingula, reduced premolar cusp

heteromorphy, large brain, high root of zygomatic, no subarcuate fossa). It also shares African

ape characters seen in other Dryopithecus specimens (laterally facing malar surface, stepped

subnasal floor, mildly elongated subnasal clivus, elongated cranium, prominent entoglenoid,

fused articular and tympanic temporal, subtle but distinct supraorbital torus, supratoral sulcus,

projecting glabella, small but inferiorly placed frontal sinus widest at or below nasion in

ethmoidal region and thin enamel with high dentine penetrance).

 


Dryopithecus was a genus of apes that lived in Eastern Africa during the Upper Miocene period, from 12 to 9 million years ago, and which could have been the evolutionary ancestor of modern man.

After evolving near the southern end of the African Rift Valley, it expanded throughout the African continent and got as far as Asia and Europe. It was 60 cm long and, despite it having the ability to walk upright, it moved mostly on four legs. However, it was not a knuckle walker like the apes.

Dryopithecus was a tree-dwelling animal and from its habitat it got its food, forest berries and fruits.

 


Oreopithecus bambolii

"oros" and "pithekos" meaning "hill-ape".

The Swamp Ape (Oreopithecus bambolii) is a prehistoric primate species from the Miocene epoch whose fossils have been found in Italy (Tuscany and Sardinia) and in East Africa

They evolved in isolation with other animals for at least two million years on an island in the Mediterranean where Tuscany in Italy is found today. There were no large predators on the island and the apes didn't have any natural enemies. Later, probably during the ice age when the sea level dropped all over the world, a land bridge emerged and connected the island with the mainland. New species, among them large predators, were then free to invade this isolated environment where animals like the Swamp Ape were easy prey. Soon this strange primate, as well as other creatures on the island, was gone forever. A parallel to what happened when the land bridge between North America and South America joined the two continents.

 

Oreopithecus is an endemic primate from an Upper Miocene Mediterranean island. Fossil insular ecosystems are well studied, especially Mediterranean ones . They are characterized by lack of predators and limitation of space and thus of trophic resources . Whereas the absence of predation removes the need for adaptations related to predator avoidance, intraspecific and interspecific competition for food resources increases . Both factors impose specific selective pressures that favor, on the one hand, adaptations linked to low energy expenditure, namely those related to energetically less expensive locomotor activities (flightless birds), and to reduction of bone mass in the locomotor apparatus at the expense of mobility and speed (reduction of limb lengths in all mammals, fusion of limb elements in ruminants, elephants, and hippos. On the other hand, they select for feeding strategies that increase the efficiency of resource utilization (increase in hypsodonty, rodent-like continuously growing incisors in bovids, reduction of premolars in many groups, etc.) . These adaptations are universally found in all mammal faunas of small islands.

 

 

The evolution of the paleoenvironmental conditions of Mediterranean islands is known to have followed a cyclical pattern. In times of overpopulation, limitation of trophic resources led to increased inter- and intraspecific competition for food  and occasionally to mass starvation . This generated specific selective pressures that favored an increase in efficiency of those organs that are involved in harvesting and feeding, mainly the masticatory apparatus and, in particular, the teeth . Bipedal positional and locomotor behavior, facultative or habitual, hence proves to be of immediate advantage because it permits the efficient exploitation with free hands of those vegetation levels that are less accessible for other mammals . However, only habitual bipedality really frees the hands from locomotor tasks and thus from those biomechanical constraints that would impede any modification to hand morphology necessary to further improve harvesting , complex bimanual food processing, and other manipulative capabilities. Selection for a skillful hand might have been one of the factors leading to habitual bipedality.

This species has a small brain and a short snout and some individuals have a sagittal crest This species has relatively long forelimbs and short hindlimbs, and it also has a relatively short trunk with a broad thorax.

If the outstanding features of the Oreopithecus hand cannot be interpreted as adaptations to terrestrial quadrupedalism, then the similarities with hominids must be considered. Recently, eight features have been proposed as distinctive of modern human precision grips and precision handling . Australopithecine hominids do not show all of these features but, rather, a combination of some of them that suggests improved finger control, the capability to exert greater force, and the tolerance of new stresses . Three features are found in A. afarensis. These are the uniquely specialized orientation of the capitate/metacarpal 2 joint, the long thumb relative to the remaining fingers, and the pronation of the index finger (first phalanx/metacarpal articulation) . A fourth feature, namely, a deep impression for the flexor pollicis longus tendon on the volar surface of the distal thumb phalanx, is found in Australopithecus africanus . Similar to A. afarensis, Oreopithecus shows the specialized orientation of the carpo-metacarpal joint as well as the thumb-index finger proportions. Furthermore, Oreopithecus shares with A. africanus  the strong impression for the tendon of a well developed long flexor muscle on the thumb (not known in A. afarensis). The functional resemblances with the australopithecine pattern suggest for Oreopithecus similar manipulative skills, with improved finger control and the capability to hold objects securely and steadily between the pads of thumb and index finger. The Oreopithecus pattern of orthograde body structure combined with features exclusively related to manual dexterity is not known in any extant or fossil primate except for bipedal hominids. This strongly suggests that the hand morphology of Oreopithecus is derived for apes and convergent with that of early hominids.

 

The hand of O. bambolii from Baccinello. (a) Hand of a small animal (BA#140). This specimen belongs to a young adult because some epiphyses are still unfused. The thumb/index finger ratio can be considered to be definitive because intrinsic proportions of the hands remain unchanged during growth . (b) Hand of the Florence skeleton (IGF 11778). (c) Hand of Dryopithecus laietanus (skeleton from Can Llobateres). Note that the hand of Oreopithecus (IGF specimen) and that of Dryopithecus (CLL-18800) differ greatly in size despite the comparable estimated body mass and the similar arm lengths of both individuals.

 

The distal phalanx of the thumb. (a) Pan (right). (b and c) Oreopithecus (b, BA#130; c, IGF 11778, left). (d) Homo (right). Upper, palmar view; lower, proximal view. Note the strong impression for the flexor pollicis longus tendon.

 

Most primates are unable to perform the pad-to-pad grip, considered an important component of skillful grasping techniques, because it depends on an appropriate thumb/index finger ratio . This is the case for the orthograde apes. Because of their climbing and suspensory behavior, their second-through-fifth fingers are elongated in relation to the body mass whereas the thumb length remains unchanged. The difference in length between the thumb and index finger makes a precision pad-to-pad grip impossible . In apes, orthograde body structure and elongated hands are linked inseparably, as they form part of the same adaptative complex functionally related to suspension and vertical climbing. Conversely, in highly specialized terrestrial monkeys (Papio and Theropithecus), the lengths of the second-through-fifth fingers are reduced as a response to the stresses caused by habitual cursorial locomotion. In these forms, this reduction leads to an approximation of the lengths of the index finger and the thumb and thus to proportions that allow improved dexterity and even pad-to-pad gripping. Hominids show similar proportions. However, these proportions do not result from locomotor constraints but from an adaptation to manipulation-related tasks .  The thumb-index finger proportions of Oreopithecus are comparable to those of both the baboons and the hominids and thus are indicative of the capability to exert pad-to-pad grips.


(a-e) Right third metacarpal and proximal phalanx. (a) Papio. (b) Dryopithecus. (c). Pan. (d) Oreopithecus (proximal phalanx undetermined). (e) Homo. For comments, see text. (f-m) Capitate/metacarpal 2 morphology in apes, hominids, and Oreopithecus. (i) Proconsul. (f and j) Pan troglodytes. (g, k, and l) O. bambolii (BA#151 capitate; BA#165 Mc2; and BA#208 Mc2). (h and m) H. sapiens. Arrows indicate the orientation of the facets for the metacarpal 2 on the capitate and for the capitate on the mc2. Note the human-like (proximal) orientation of the facet for the capitate in Oreopithecus and in Homo and the ape (medial) orientation in Pan. 
In Oreopithecus, the facet for the capitate on the metacarpal 2 shows a hominid-like transversel orientation, perpendicular to the facet for the metacarpal 3 (Fig. g, k, and l). Furthermore, the capitate of Oreopithecus lacks the ape-like waisting (Fig. g), considered as an adaptation to withstand the tensile stresses caused by climbing and arm hanging . This feature is still present in Australopithecus. Note the lack of waisting on the Oreopithecus capitate and the Homo capitate and its presence in Pan.

 

In monkeys and Miocene hominoids, the dorsally concave shape of the proximal articular surfaces of the proximal phalanges allows a high degree of hyperextension of the metacarpo-phalangeal joints indispensable for baboon-like digitigrady or palmigrady of arboreal monkeys, Proconsul or Dryopithecus (see Fig.  a and b, Papio and Dryopithecus). In Oreopithecus and Homo, the rather flat shape of these joint surfaces allows little, if any, hyperextension (see Fig. d and e). Knuckle walkers (Pan, Gorilla) show a swollen transverse crest on the distal metacarpals, marking the "stop" that prevents dislocation of the hyperextended joints during knuckle walking (see Fig. c, Pan). Oreopithecus lacks these crests (see Fig d).

 

Foot morphology. (A) Oreopithecus (based on BA79 and BA83, right and left foot of the same individual). (B) Pan. (Upper) Dorsal view. Continuous line, long axis of the foot; interrupted line, axis of Mt3; lower dotted line, tarso-metatarsal joint axis, showing the permanent abduction of the lateral metatarsals; upper dotted line joining the distal ends of the Mt2-5 diaphyses, showing the medially decreasing length of the metatarsals. (Lower) Posterior view of the articulated tarsal elements. 1, Line of gravity; 2, inclination of the tuber calcis. (Scale = 2 cm.)


 

Toumaï

 



Australopithecus afarensis

 

 

 

 


Austrolopithecus boisei

 


 


Austrolopithecus robustus

 


Austrolopithecus aethiopicus


Homo habilis

 


Homo Ergaster

 

 

Homo Erectus


A panel of close parents

 

 

1 HOMO HABILIS ~ NICKNAME: Handyman LIVED: 2.4 to 1.6 million years ago HABITAT: Tropical Africa DIET: Omnivorous – nuts, seeds, tubers, fruits, some meat
2 HOMO SAPIEN ~ NICKNAME: Human LIVED: 200,000 years ago to present HABITAT: All DIET: Omnivorous - meat, vegetables, tubers, nuts, pizza, sushi
3 HOMO FLORESIENSIS ~ NICKNAME: Hobbit LIVED: 95,000 to 13,000 years ago HABITAT: Flores, Indonesia (tropical) DIET: Omnivorous - meat included pygmy stegodon, giant rat
4 HOMO ERECTUS ~ NICKNAME: Erectus LIVED: 1.8 million years to 100,000 years ago HABITAT: Tropical to temperate - Africa, Asia, Europe DIET: Omnivorous - meat, tubers, fruits, nuts
5 PARANTHROPUS BOISEI ~ NICKNAME: Nutcracker man LIVED: 2.3 to 1.4 million years ago HABITAT: Tropical Africa DIET: Omnivorous - nuts, seeds, leaves, tubers, fruits, maybe some meat
6 HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS ~ NICKNAME: Goliath LIVED: 700,000 to 300,000 years ago HABITAT: Temperate and tropical, Africa and Europe DIET: Omnivorous - meat, vegetables, tubers, nuts
7 HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS ~ NICKNAME: Neanderthal LIVED: 250,000 to 30,000 years ago HABITAT: Europe and Western Asia DIET: Relied heavily on meat, such as bison, deer and musk ox


Synthesis of Miocene in Europe

The first hominoids of modern aspect appear in Turkey and central Europe shortly before Eurasia was isolated from Africa during the Langhian transgression. It is probably a combination of this geographic

isolation, the presence of a key adaptation in robust chewing structures, and the new challenges of existence in Eurasia that lead to the evolution of Griphopithecus and its spread across the central and eastern Mediterranean region in MN 5-6. Subsequent in situ evolution of hominids in Eurasia is likely, given their absence in Africa until the end of the Miocene and their tremendous diversity in

the middle and late Miocene of Eurasia. The only possible exception is Kenyapithecus

which may well be of Eurasian origin as well.During this time period the modern clades of the Asian great apes (represented today only by Pongo) and the African apes and humans diverge and radiate across Eurasia, from Spain to China. Turkey samples two branches of this radiation, the Asian great ape Ankarapithecus and an Afro-European hominid with affinities to taxa from both continents. All of these taxa are probably derived from a Griphopithecus-like ancestor. By beginning of the Messinian (ca. 7 Ma) all hominids living north of the Tropic of Cancer are extinct. Two comparatively trivial branches, in terms of peak species diversity, survived whatever conditions led to the extinction of the great radiation of Eurasian hominids. These vestiges remain today in Southeast Asia and Central Africa, still representing the two principle lineages of late Miocene Eurasian hominids.

 

 


 

MAJOR EARLY HOMINID SITES


Map of Africa showing major australopithecine sites

 

 

 


4) Phylogenetic Tree

Family Pongidae

Animalia :: Chordata :: Tetrapoda :: Mammalia :: Theria :: Primates

Phylogeny

 

Strict consensus cladogram of four equallly parcimonious topologies


 Family Hominidae

Animalia :: Chordata :: Tetrapoda :: Mammalia :: Primates

Phylogeny

Homo sapiens (Charles Darwin).


5) Primates classification


Source  Primates http://members.tripod.com/cacajao/

Primates Taxonomy (source: Fleagle 1999)

ORDER: incertae sedis

Purgatorius

ORDER: Plesiadapiformes

SUPERFAMILY: Plesiadapoidea
FAMILY: Plesiadapidae

Pandemonium
Pronothodectes
Nannodectes
Plesiadapis
Chiromyoides
Platychoerops


FAMILY: Carpolestidae

Chronolestes
Elphidotarsius
Carpodaptes
Carpolestes
Carpocristes


FAMILY: Saxonellidae

Saxonella

FAMILY: Paromomyidae

Paromomys
Ignacius
Phenacolemur
Elwynella
Simpsonlemur
Dillerlemur
Pulverflumen
Arcius


FAMILY: Micromomyidae

Micromomys
Tinimomys
Chalicomomys
Myrmekomomys


SUPERFAMILY: Microsyopoidea
FAMILY: Palaechthonidae

Palaechthon
Plesiolestes
Talpohenach
Torrejonia
Palenochtha
Premnoides


FAMILY: Microsyopidae

Navajovius
Berruvius
Niptomomys
Uintasorex
Avenius
Microsyops
Arctodontomys
Craseops
Megadelphus


SUPERFAMILY: incertae sedis
FAMILY: Picrodontidae

Picrodus
Zanycteris
Draconodus


FAMILY: Picromomyidae

Picromomys
Alveojunctus


ORDER: Primata

SUBORDER: Prosimii
FAMILY: incertae sedis

Altanius
Altiatlasius


INFRAORDER: Lemuriformes
SUPERFAMILY: Adapoidea
FAMILY: Notharctidae
SUBFAMILY: Notharctinae

Cantius
Copelemur
Notharctus
Smilodectes
Pelycodus
Hesperolemur


SUBFAMILY: Cercamoniinae

Donrussellia
Protoadapis
Europolemur
Periconodon
Caenopithecus
Pronycticebus
Cercamonius
Anchomomys
Huerzeleria
Buxella
Agerinia
Panobius
Mahgarita
Djebelemur
Aframonius
Omanodon
Shizarodon
Wadilemur


FAMILY: incertae sedis

Azibius
Hoanghonius
Lushius
Rencunius
Wailekia


FAMILY: Adapidae
SUBFAMILY: Adapinae

Adapis
Cryptadapis
Microadapis
Leptadapis
Adapoides


FAMILY: Sivaladapidae
SUBFAMILY: Sivaladapinae

Indraloris
Sivaladapis
Sinoadapis


SUPERFAMILY: Lemuroidea
FAMILY: Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus
Mirza
Cheirogaleus
Phaner
Allocebus


FAMILY: Lemuridae

Lemur
Eulemur
Varecia
Pachylemur
Hapalemur


FAMILY: Lepilemuridae
SUBFAMILY: Lepilemurinae

Lepilemur

SUBFAMILY: Megaladapinae

Megaladapis

FAMILY: Indriidae
SUBFAMILY: Indriinae

Avahi
Propithecus
Indri


SUBFAMILY: Archaeolemurinae

Archaeolemur
Hadropithecus


SUBFAMILY: Palaeopropithecinae

Mesopropithecus
Babakotia
Palaeopropithecus
Archaeoindris


FAMILY: Daubentoniidae

Daubentonia

SUPERFAMILY: Lorisoidea
FAMILY: Galagidae

Progalago
Komba
Otolemur
Galago
Euoticus
Galagoides


FAMILY: Lorisidae

Perodicticus
Pseudopotto
Arctocebus
Loris
Nycticebus
Mioeuoticus


FAMILY: Plesiopithecidae

Plesiopithecus

INFRAORDER: Tarsiiformes
SUPERFAMILY: Omomyoidea
FAMILY: Omomyoidae
SUBFAMILY: Anaptomorphinae
TRIBE: Anaptomorphini

Teilhardina
Anaptomorphus
Gazinius
Tetonius
Pseudotetonius
Absarokius
Tatmanius
Strigorhysis
Acrossia


TRIBE: Trogolemurini

Trogolemur
Sphacorhysis
Anemorhysis
Tetonoides
Arapahovius
Chlororhysis


TRIBE: Washakiini

Washakius
Shoshonius
Dyseolemur
Loveina


SUBFAMILY: Omomyinae
TRIBE: Omomyini

Omomys
Chumashius
Steinius


TRIBE: Uintaniini

Uintanius
Jemezius


TRIBE: Macrotarsiini

Macrotarsius
Hemiacodon
Yaquius


TRIBE: Ourayini

Ourayia
Wyomomys
Ageitodendron
Utahia
Stockia
Chipetaia
Asiomomys


TRIBE: incertae sedis

Ekgmowechashala

FAMILY: Microchoeridae

Nannopithex
Pseudoloris
Necrolemur
Microchoerus


FAMILY: incertae sedis

Rooneyia
Kohatius


SUPERFAMILY: Tarsioidea
FAMILY: Tarsiidae

Afrotarsius
Tarsius
Xanthorhysis


SUBORDER: Anthropoidea
INFRAORDER: incertae sedis
SUPERFAMILY: incertae sedis
FAMILY: Eosimiidae

Eosmias

FAMILY: incertae sedis

Amphipithecus
Pondaungia
Siamopithecus


SUPERFAMILY: Parapithecoidea
FAMILY: Parapithecidae

Serapia
Qatrania
Apidium
Parapithecus
Biretia


SUPERFAMILY: incertae sedis
FAMILY: incertae sedis

Proteopithecus
Arsinoea
Algeripithecus
Tabelia


INFRAORDER: Platyrrhini
SUPERFAMILY: Ceboidea
FAMILY: Atelidae
SUBFAMILY: Pitheciinae

Soriacebus
Carlocebus
Homunculus
Cebupithecia
Nuciruptor
Propithecia
Pithecia
Chiropotes
Cacajao


SUBFAMILY: Callicebinae

Callicebus

SUBFAMILY: Atelinae

Stirtonia
Protopithecus
Caipora
Alouatta
Lagothrix
Brachyteles
Ateles


FAMILY: Cebidae
SUBFAMILY: Aotinae

Tremacebus
Aotus


SUBFAMILY: Cebinae

Dolichocebus
Chilecebus
Neosaimiri
Laventiana
Cebus
Saimiri


SUBFAMILY: Callitrichinae

Micodon
Patasola
Lagonimico
Callimico
Saguinus
Leontopithecus
Callithrix
Cebuella


SUBFAMILY: incertae sedis

Branisella
Szalatavus
Mohanamico
Paralouatta
Xenothrix
Antillothrix


INFRAORDER: Catarrhini
SUPERFAMILY: Propliopithecoidea
FAMILY: Propliopithecidae

Propliopithecus
Aegyptopithecus


FAMILY: Oligopithecidae

Oligopithecus
Catopithecus


SUPERFAMILY: Hominoidea
FAMILY: Proconsulidae

Proconsul
Rangwapithecus
Limnopithecus
Dendropithecus
Simiolus
Micropithecus
Kalepithecus
Kamoyapithecus
Dionysopithecus
Platydontopithecus


FAMILY: Oreopithecidae

Mabokopithecus
Nyanzapithecus
Oreopithecus


FAMILY: incertae sedis

Afropithecus
Morontopithecus
Turkanapithecus
Kenyapithecus
Otavipithecus
Samburupithecus


FAMILY: Pliopithecidae

Pliopithecus
Plesiopliopithecus
Anapithecus
Laccopithecus


FAMILY: Hylobatidae

Hylobates

FAMILY: Pongidae

Dryopithecus
Lufengpithecus
Griphopithecus
Sivapithecus
Ankarapithecus
Gigantopithecus
Graecopithecus
Ouranopithecus
Pongo
Gorilla
Pan


FAMILY: Hominidae
SUBFAMILY: Australopithecinae

Ardipithecus
Australopithecus
Paranthropus


SUBFAMILY: Homininae

Homo

SUPERFAMILY: Cercopithecoidea
FAMILY: Victoriapithecidae
SUBFAMILY: Victoriapithecinae

Prohylobates
Victoriapithecus


FAMILY: Cercopithecidae
SUBFAMILY: Cercopithecinae

Macaca
Procynocephalus
Paradolichopithecus
Papio
Dinopithecus
Cercocebus
Lophocebus
Parapapio
Gorgopithecus
Theropithecus
Cercopithecus
Allenopithecus
Chlorocebus
Erythrocebus
Mandrillus
Miopithecus


SUBFAMILY: Colobinae

Mesopithecus
Dolichopithecus
Semnopithecus
Presbytis
Kasi
Trachypithecus
Nasalis
Simias
Pygathrix
Rhinopithecus
Colobus
Piliocolobus
Procolobus
Libypithecus
Microcolobus
Cercopithecoides
Paracolobus
Rhinocolobus


6) General primat chart

 

Middle Miocene Eurasian and more modern hominoids: thick occlusal enamel on the

postcanine teeth. This morphology is associated with robust mandibles and some reduction

in the relative size of the anterior dentition (incisors and canines).

 

Site de recherche http://webpages.charter.net/teefile/biognomen

And http://www.fmnh.helsinki.fi/users/haaramo/metazoa/deuterostoma/chordata/synapsida/Eutheria/Primates/Parapithecoidea/Oreopithecidae.htm

 

The Miocene hominoids are particularly interesting to students of human evolution because they reflect adaptive radiations that immediately preceded that of humans. Four families of Miocene apes are generally recognized: Proconsulidae, Oreopithecidae, Pliopithecidae, and Pongidae. Early Miocene hominoids are best known from East African Proconsulidae, whose species vary widely in size from about 3 kg to over 50 kg. Although teeth and fragmentary skeletal fossils are numerous, a remarkably complete skeleton of one species, Proconsul africanus, was found on Rusinga Island, Kenya. This small female hominoid, weighed about 10 kg (the size of a siamang). Its skull resembles that of a small ape with an expanded brain size; lacks a strong supraorbital torus; and gives the visual impression of a small ape of modest musculature. Locomotor anatomy is that of a generalized arboreal quadruped that engages in under-branch suspension, but does not have the extreme anatomy associated with specialized brachiation. It may not have possessed a tail. Another slightly smaller member of the Family Proconsulidae at about 6 kg, Dendropithecus, has long slender limbs, projecting canine teeth, and sectorial lower third premolars. Micropithecus is even smaller. The largest, P. major, is known only from dental remains, and is a gorilla-sized animal.

Oreopithecidae are best known from Oreopithecus bambolii, relatively complete crushed fossils found in coal deposits that formed in wet forests of what is now northern Italy about 14 million years ago. Its dentition is somewhat different from other apes, but its locomotor anatomy appears to be the suspensory configuration widely exhibited by hominoids. Curiously, its pelvis has an expanded iliac blade, a character associated with bipedalism in hominids.

The Pliopithecidae are a group of small gibbon-sized apes from Europe and Asia with primitive looking molar teeth. Their skeleton has the form and proportion similar to modern suspensory primates with almost equally long arms and legs. Pliopithecus is a siamang-sized European quadruped that retains some primitive characteristics, including an incompletely ossified ectotympanic tube.

The Pongidae are a quite variable group of apes who, among other features, have upper canine teeth that exhibit less honing function on P3. Dryopithecus is represented by several species of chimpanzee-sized apes. Dryopithecus and Sivapithecus are known primarily from dental fossils, but one late Miocene Sivapithecus face from the Southern foothills of the Himalayas is unusually complete and appears to have an profile reminiscent of that of orangutans. Another fossil ape genus, Sivapithecus, range in body size from 10 kg to 80 kg. It is a particularly important genus because its wide range extends from Africa across Europe to China. Sivapithecus is distinguished from Ouranopithecus by its more robust mandible, larger mesial teeth relative to cheek teeth, a sectorial P3, and a facial outline that resembles that of an orangutan. Ouranopithecus is a poorly known Chinese ape about the size of a chimpanzee that has many characteristics that are later to be found in early Australopithecines; enlarged molar cusps, thickened enamel, and absence of a sectorial facet on the lower third premolar. Gigantopithecus, judging by tooth and mandible fragments, is the largest of all primates, perhaps exceeding 300 Kg.

Afropithecus, Kenyapithecus, and Turkanapithecus are Miocene apes whose phylogenetic relationships are less certain. Afropithecus is about the size of a female gorilla. The profile of its narrow face contrasts sharply with that of Proconsul. Turkanapithecus is a gibbon-sized ape with a face intermediate in forward projection between Proconsul and Afropithecus. Its maxillary molar and premolar teeth exhibit small accessory cusps that distinguish it from other hominoids. Kenyapithecus, known only from incomplete dental materials, exhibits the thickened molar enamel, robust mandible, and large upper premolars that are characteristic of humans and great apes.

The initial human adaptive radiation, begun in the late Miocene, is well established during the Pliocene. Cercopithecoids diverge into the Cercopithecines (the omnivorous monkeys) and the Colobines (leaf-eating monkeys). As Old World monkeys became more diverse and Miocene apes vanished with dryer late Miocene climates, early humans moved into the savanna habitat.

Thus the human lineage, not especially remarkable among the other primate groups, began its history. But our perception of the record of that history is colored by the ideas and insights of its discoverers. In reality, the record of human history was recovered piecemeal and in random sequence. D ata represented in anatomy and context do not speak for themselves but had to be perceived and interpreted according to the scientific idioms prevalent at the time of their discoveries.

 

To classify

Samburupithecus

 

 

 

 

 

Hispanopithecus

 

 

 

 

 

Sugrivapithecus

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rudapiteco (ramapithecus)

 

 

Hungria

 

 

Paleosima (ramapithecus)

 

 

Asia / Africa/ Europa

 

 

Sugrivapitheco(ramapithecus)

 

 

Asia / Africa/ Europa

 

 

Pongo (Hemanthropus peii )

 

 

china

teeth are "much bigger than those of the modern form, some of them even surpassing the large teeth of the gorilla

 

Meganthropus

(australopithecus ?)

 

 

South east asia Java

 

 

 

INFRAORDER CATARRHINI

Superfamily Hominoidea

 

1) FAMILY: Proconsulidae

 

Name

Geological ayer

Estimated oldness

Territory

General information / physiology/feeding

Parent Species

Proconsul africanus (=Xenopithecus koruensis)

 

-23 to

 -14

 

intermediate length crests of a frugivore

from 5 to 75 kg

cranial capacity: 154 to 180  cc.

Slow moving, arboricol  quadruped

Similar characters to the monkeys: streamlined bones of the ankle

Similar characters to the anthropoiden: robust thumb of foot

 

 

Proconsul nyanzae (=Sivapithecus africanus= Kenyapithecus africanus)

 

 

 

Greater than proconsul africanus

 

Proconsul  major

 

 

 

 

 

Proconsul heseloni (=Heliopithecus)

 

 

 

 

 

Rangwapithecus

 

 

 

shearing crests suggesting folivory (leaves)

 

Limnopithecus legetet

 

~-20

Africa

Central incisors of this species were broad and large canines of this species are well-developed The upper canines lacked double mesial grooves and were rounded The lower third premolar was triangular in shape The molars had cusps that were low and rounded The lower molars had distinct buccal cingula and the upper molars had distinct lingual cingula The lower molars increase in size from the first to the third The maxillary sinus of this species is long and narrow This species had a mandibular symphysis which had a superior transverse torus.

Weight 5 kg

Frugivore arboreal quadrupede

 

Dendropithecus macinnesi

 

~-20

Africa

Soft fruits

incisors of this species are tall and narrow and the molars are broad with numerous crests The canines are long and sharp in this species the canines also show a high degree of sexual dimorphism The lower third premolar of this species is sectorial as in extant hylobatids. The buccal cusp of the upper third premolar is strongly projecting This species had upper molars of relatively simple design with relatively small hypocones and well-defined trigones the third upper molar is also usually reduced This species had a relatively robust mandible The oral incisive fossa of this species "is a transversely broad basin that opens directly into the oral cavity" This species had long and slender limbs much members of the extant genus Ateles

Weight 5 kg

Frugivore arboreal quadrupede

 

 

Simiolus enjiessi

 

 

 

 

 

Simiolus leakeyorum

 

 

 

 

 

Micropithecus

 

 

 

Alimentation : leaves

 

Kalepithecus

 

 

 

 

 

Kamoyapithecus

 

 

 

 

 

Dionysopithecus

 

 

 

 

 

Platydontopithecus

 

 

 

 

 

Mabokopithecus clarki

 

 

 

 

 

Nyanzapithecus vancouveringorum (=Rangwapithecus vancouveringi )

 

 

 

 

 

Nyanzapithecus  pickfordi

 

 

 

 

 

Nyanzapithecus harrisoni

 

 

 

 

 

Rangwapithecus gordoni

 

 

 

 

 

Turkanapithecus kalakolensis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FAMILY: incertae sedis (Afropithecinae or member of Proconsulidae ?)

 


Morotopithecus

 

 

Ouganda

 

 

Turkanapithecus

 

 

 

 

 

Otavipithecus

 

 

 

thin enamel

 

Samburupithecus

 

 

 

 

 

Afropithecus turkanensis

 

 

 

 

 

Kenyapithecus (= Equatorius A fricanus =(= ramapithecus wiekeri ?)

 

 

 

Like late hominoids, compressed canins

and a higher position of the root of the zygomatic

process of the maxilla

medium sized semiterrestrial quadrupeds

Griphopithecus

Nacholapithecus kerioi

 

 

 

 

 

Heliopithecus leakeyi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2) FAMILY: Oreopithecidae

 

Oreopithecus (Oreopithecus bambolii)

 

-8,5 to -6,5 M. (Italy)

Italy (Tuscany)

Sardaign

A lower back that arched forward and a vertically aligned knee joint, two features crucial to upright walking.

The femur of Oreopithecus shows a pronounced diaphyseal angle combined with condyles of subequal size, similar to Australopithecus and Homo and functionally correlated with bipedal activities.

big toe sticks out at about 90o from the remaining toes, all of which are shorter and straighter than toes of living apes. The foot provided a firm base for an upright stance, although its birdlike, tripod design probably restricted the animal to a short, shuffling stride.

The pubis closely resembles in size and shape that of Australopithecus afarensis.

The ape would have shuffled slowly along, but this wasn't much of a problem, because no predators lived on the island.

Easy prey for predators that came to the island during an ice age, when sea levels fell and land bridges formed.

Femora diverge distally so that the knee joints are far from the line of gravity, allowing optimal positioning of the legs during vertical climbing). Some further characters appreciably reduce the range of mobility and grasping capability of the foot. The calcaneo-cuboid joint is very low and rectangular, contrary to the general primate pattern, indicating little, if any, dorsiflexion and no rotatory movement. The metatarso-cuboid joint surfaces are even flatter than in Papio and thus minimize movement. The MtV-cuboid contact differs from that of other primates, including Dryopithecus, as the cuboid lacks the lateral tilt of the joint surface that articulates with the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal. Thus, this joint cannot transmit support reaction forces acting on the lateral border of the foot when this is inverted during vertical climbing.

 

The slow climber and suspensor (Pongo) shows elongation of the metatarsals and phalanges, adaptations for more effective hanging. The feet hence lose most of their propulsive functions on the ground or on large-diameter supports. Gorilla and Homo show an opposite pattern, increasing their power arm/load arm ratio, although for different reasons. In Gorilla, this is due to the enormous body mass. The ability of muscles to generate force does not increase isometrically with their mass but with their cross-section . Therefore, the force of the muscle increases less than does body mass. Extremely big animals such as Gorilla reach a limit where they have to compensate for this relative loss of muscle force by improving the lever advantage for these muscles. This, however, is possible only in those animals that do not need speed . In humans, the increase in power arm/load arm ratio is due to bipedality, because the feet have to support the entire body weight. This requires a change of proportions to maintain peak bone stresses similar to those of quadrupeds. The foot proportions of Oreopithecus contrast with those of specialized climbers, nor do they match those of platyrrhines or cercopithecids, but rather fall close to the unusual proportions shown by Gorilla and Homo. Due to its low body mass, Oreopithecus is not comparable with Gorilla; however, striking similarities with humans exist regarding the relation of foot proportions and body mass.

The orthograde Oreopithecus has short hands relative to its estimated body weight Its hand length falls close to that of pronograde monkeys, gorillas, and hominids and not, as expected, to that of apes.

The postcranial morphology of Oreopithecus clearly reflects such bipedal terrestrial activities. The peculiar feet, less suitable for fast walking or running than those of early hominids, yield, however, an especially well designed platform for stable postural harvesting, as the tripod formed by the deviated metatarsals and the widely abducted hallux provides a large area of support. Short legs further increase stability during bipedal stance because the center of gravity is low. Both features, short legs and short lever arm of the feet, indicate short stride length and low speed and suggest bipedal shuffling.

Weight of a male ~ 32 kg

the cranium has sagittal and nuchal crests,

cranial capacity: 200 cc.

Alimentation:

shearing crests suggesting folivory (leaves)

 

 

FAMILY: Pliopithecidae

Pliopithecus

 

 

 

 

Régime folivore indiqué par la grande taille des molaires, vivant probablement dans un moyen forestier dense

 

Pliopithecus

platyodon


 

MN5

 

suisse

 

 

Pliopithecus

antiquus

MN 5

 

france

 

 

Pliopithecus

vindobonensis

MN 5

 

slovaquie

 

 

Plesiopliopithecus

 

 

 

 

 


Anapithecus
hernyaki

 

-10

 

 

 

Anapithecus

MN9

 

Hungary/ germany/ france

 

 

Laccopithecus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Hylophates

 

 

 

 

 

* Mesopithecus pentelicus

 

MN13

-7,1

Polgárdi,

Baltavar and Hatvan localities.

 

 

Dolicopithecus

rusinensis

MN13

 

 

large and almost perfectely spherical

head, a very long, antero-posteriorly compressed neck

and a robust, curved shaft with a pronounced gluteal line

Mesopithecus pentelicus

Epipliopithecus

 

 

 

 

 

*TUROLIAN HOMINID (?)

 

 

anatolie

Close to Ouranopithecus and

Graecopithecus, but also early Pliocene taxa such as Australopithecus anamensis and

Ardipithecus ramidus

 

*Megaladapis

 

 

 

 

 

 

FAMILY: Hylobatidae

Hylobates moloch (moloch gibbon)

 

 

 

 

 

Hylobates pileatus (pileatus gibbon)

 

 

 

 

 

Hylobates syndactilus (siamang)

 

 

 

 

 

Hylobates lar (White-handed Gibbon)

 

 

 

 

 

Hylobates muelleri (Mueller’s gibbon)

 

 

 

 

 

Hylobates Lossii (Kloss’ gibbon)

 

 

 

 

 

Hylobates Hoolock (Hoolock gibbon)

 

 

 

 

 

Hylobates Concolor (Blacck gibbon)

 

 

 

 

 

Hylobates agilis (Agile Gibbon)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Macaca Fascicularis

 

 

 

 

 

Mandrillus sphinx

 

 

 

 

 

Theropithecus gelada

 

 

 

 

 

 

FAMILY: Pongidae

Dryopithecus

 

 

France/ Spain/ hungary

great ape morphology

of the palate, mid-face, orbital region, neurocranium and

craniofacial hafting

cranial volume of 150 cc

Quadruped and arboricole / adaptation of runner

excellent joint of the wrist and elbow

 

intermediate length crests of a frugivore

 

 

 

Dryopithecus fontani

MN5

 

france

 

 

Dryopithecus carinthiacus

 

-12,5

 

 

 

Dryopithecus laietanus

 

-9,5

Spain

long arms and short legs relative to its estimated body size, a large hand with long, curved finger bones marked by grooves where powerful muscles attached, and a large clavicle resting atop a broad chest

 

Dryopithecus crusafonti

 

-9,5

Spain

 

 

Dryopithecus brancoi (= Rudapithecus

hungaricus)

 

-10

germany / hungary

and Rudabánya city

 It shares the same great ape characters found in other

Dryopithecus from Rudabánya and elsewhere in Europe (dental proportions, labiolingually

thick incisors, compressed canines, elongated postcanines, no cingula, reduced premolar cusp

heteromorphy, large brain, high root of zygomatic, no subarcuate fossa, laterally facing malar surface, stepped

subnasal floor, mildly elongated subnasal clivus, elongated cranium, prominent entoglenoid,

fused articular and tympanic temporal, subtle but distinct supraorbital torus, supratoral sulcus,

projecting glabella, small but inferiorly placed frontal sinus widest at or below nasion in

ethmoidal region and thin enamel with high dentine penetrance).

 

 

*Griphopithecus alpani

MN 5

-16,2 (Turkey)

 

-15 Ma (Autriche)

 

Europe centrale (espagne, france, allmeagne/slovaquie/ / Anatolie

Thickly

enameled molars with broad, rounded cusps,

shallow occlusal basins, blunt occlusal crests

and a shallow topography of the enamal-dentine

junction

It also preserves the premolars,

which have a simple occlusal morphology,

and the alveoli for the canines and incisors,

which must have been quite small. The

symphysis is strongly reinforced by superior

and inferior transverse tori

 

Alimentation: hard fruit diet with dental characters most similar to middle and late Miocene Sivapithecus from South Asia, Ouranopithecus from Greece, and Pliocene hominids from East and South Africa (Australopithecus and early Homo).

This is probably the primitive morphological

complex for hominids (great apes and

humans) and represents the earliest appearence

of these characters.

Hominoides du miocène inférieur /dérivé du proconsul)

Griphopithecus darwini (=Griphopithecus alpani)

 

 

slovaquie

 

 

Lufengpithecus lufengensis

 

-8 to -7 Ma

 

thick molar enamel and it also has relatively low canine teeth, especially in females Lufengpithecus is characterized by extreme sexual dimorphism and thick enameled molars that preserve a late Miocene ape morphology

 

Lufengpithecus chiangmuanensis

 

 

-10 Ma

Thaïland

intermediate in morphology between Sivapithecus and recent orangutans.

 

*Ouranopithecus

 

 

 

extremely short crests suggesting a hard-object specialization

 

* Graecopithecus(Ramapithecus )

 

 

 

 

 

Gigantopithecus

 

 

 

Habitat : plaine herbacée

 

*Gigantopithecus giganteus  (or Indopithecus)

 

-6 Ma

India

Soft fruits and massive bamboo consumption

9 feet tall, weighing 600 pounds

 

Gigantopithecus blacki

 

-1.3 to - 0.3

Vietnam/ China

Soft fruits and  massive bamboo consumption

9 feet tall, weighing 600 pounds

The canine teeth are not sharp and pointed, but are rather broad and flat; the incisors are small, peglike, and closely packed. These observations, combined with the massive jaw morphology, make it really an inevitable conclusion that the animal was adapted to the consumption of tough fibrous foods by cutting, crushing, and grinding them

 

Gigantopithecus .bilaspurensis

 

 

Asia

Thick enamel. Characteristics in

teeth indicate set of teeth of type stone to grind, adapted to a great

hard vegetable mastication.

 

Ankarapithecus  (Ankarapithecus meteai)

 

 

Anatolie

is thickly enameled with low, rounded cusps,

blunt crests and shallow basins

molars lack

cingula

). The maxilla is massive with

roots of the zygomatic processes placed high on the alveolar process, and a broad nasal aperture at its base, both being hominid characters. The premaxilla is robust and

elongated, as in hominids, but lacks the highly

derived morphology of Sivapithecus.

Like Ouranopithecus

the premaxilla is biconvex and less horizontally

oriented that in Sivapithecus (Fig. 6).

Like Sivapithecus the zygoma are broad and

laterally flared, and face anteriorly. The midface

is prognathic and not flat as in

Sivapithecus and Pongo, but very tall, as in the Asian taxa. The orbits are squared, not elongated as in Sivapithecus, and the interorbital space is relatively narrow, again, like Asian great apes The nasal bones are extremely

elongated, as in Sivapithecus. Supraciliary

arches contour the superior edges of the

orbits, but they do not meet in the midline to

form a true torus. They are robust but closely resemble those of large Pongo, and to a lesser

extent Sivapithecus and large Cebus.

These

arches have been interpreted as supraorbital.

tori (Alpagut et al. 1996), which are otherwise

only found in Dryopithecus, Ouranopithecus,

and African apes and humans, but their condition

in Ankarapithecus is unlike a true torus

that meets in the midline and does not follow

the orbital contours . Overall

the morphology of Ankarapithecus is strongly

suggestive of cladistic affinities with

Sivapithecus and Pongo , but lacking

some of the derived characters of these

hominids. analysis strongly indicates

pongine affinities as the sister taxon to the

Sivapithecus-Pongo clade .

Like Griphopithecus and other taxa from

earlier deposits in the middle Miocene of

Anatolia, Ankarapithecus is primitive compared

to its closest relatives. while Ankarapithecus

is primitive relative to contemporary and later Sivapithecus from the Siwaliks

Pongines may first appear in South

Asia, represented by the Chinji specimens of uncertain taxonomy

Ankarapithecus may represent an early branch,

migrating southwest to Turkey, while

Sivapithecus radiated in situ into a diversity

of species

 

Alimentation: hard object feeder

 

Ouranopithecus

Sivapithecus (genus)

 

 

 

 

 

Sivapithecus (Sivapithecus indicus)

 

- 12.5 to -10.5

India and Pakistan

Soft fruits

 

Sivapithecus (Sivapithecus sivalensis)

 

- 10.5 to -9.5

India and Pakistan

Soft fruits

 

Sivapithecus (Sivapithecus parvada)

 

- 10

India and Pakistan

Soft fruits

Larger than the two  other species

 

Sivapithecus

(=ramapithecus)

 

-14 to

 -12

India , Turkey and east africa

 

 

Kenyapithecus wiekeri

 

 

Kenya

 

 

Papio ursinus (baboon)

 

 

 

Males can weigh from 59 to 97 pounds (30-40 kg) and are about 20 to 30 in. long (50-70 cm). Females can weigh from 31 to 37 pounds (15- 20 kg) and are 16 to 24 in. long

(40-60 cm). It has beady, close-set eyes under a heavy brow, and a dog-like muzzle with sharp tusk-like upper canine teeth. Its muzzle is bare, as is its rump under the tail. They are very hairy animals with olive-gray fur. Its fur sticks up all over its body. They walk on all four feet with their tails held in a crooked arch over their back. Their tails are around 2 feet long.

Unlike what you would expect, baboons do not live in trees. They spend most of their time on the ground. The only time they go into trees is to escape predators, get food, or spend the night. They might also spend the night on tall rocky outcroppings. Baboon babies go up in trees to horse around and play with each other. Baboons mostly eat fruit from trees, roots, an assortment of plants, and of course, bugs.

 

 

Pan paniscus (pygmy chimpazee =bonobos)

 

 

 

 

 

Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee)

 

 

 

 

 

Pongo pygmaeus (ourang-outan)

 

 

 

 

 

Gorilla gorilla gorilla

 

 

 

Tropical forest

 

Gorilla gorilla beringei

 

 

 

 

 

Gorilla gorilla graueri

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

FAMILY: Hominidae

 

SPECIES

males 

  females 

  females as 
 % of males

  males 

  females 

  females as 
 % of males








  Australopithecus afarensis 1 

99 lbs
(45 kg)

64 lbs
(29 kg)

64%

59 in
(151 cm)

41 in
(105 cm)

70%

  Australopithecus africanus  

90 lbs
(41 kg)

66 lbs
(30 kg)

73%

54 in
(138 cm)

45 in
(115 cm)

83%

  Australopithecus robustus

88 lbs
(40 kg)

70 lbs
(32 kg)

80%

52 in
(132 cm)

43 in
(110 cm)

83%

  Australopithecus boisei

108 lbs
(49 kg)

75 lbs
(34 kg)

69%

54 in
(137 cm)

49 in
(124 cm)

91%

  earliest humans
     (Homo habilis) 

114 lbs
(52 kg)

70 lbs
(32 kg)

61%

62 in
(157 cm)

49 in
(125 cm)

79%

  modern humans 2
     (Homo sapiens)

144 lbs
(65 kg)

119 lbs
(54 kg)

83%

69 in
(175 cm)

63 in
(161 cm)

92%


1  Afarensis may have been somewhat less sexually dimorphic than indicated by McHenry's data
    presented here

2  The relatively low weight and height of modern humans shown here is a rough average of all people
    around the globe.  Some populations are significantly bigger (e.g., Europeans and Africans).









 


SUBFAMILY: incertae sedis

Sahelanthropus tchadensis

 

-7

Tchad

smallish cranial volume of 350 cc

many primitive apelike features, such as the small brainsize, along with others, such as the brow ridges and small canine teeth, which are characteristic of later hominids

The hominid features involve the structure of the face, and the small, apically worn, canine crowns. Other hominid features are found in the base of the cranium and in the separate jaw fragment.

The face has brow ridges, a human feature not found on living great apes.

Height 1,15 to 1,25 m

Weight 23 to 35 kg

Sa capacité cranienne, de l'ordre de 360-370 cm3, est équivalente à celle des chimpanzés actuels. Sa denture notamment ses canines petites à usure apicale et sans crête aiguisoir ; la morphologie de ses prémolaires et molaires à émail plus épais que chez les chimpanzés mais moins que chez les Australopithèques ; sa face relativement raccourcie et la base de son crâne avec un trou occipital en position déjà très antérieure et une face occipitale très inclinée vers l’arrière montrent que l’hominidé tchadien appartient bien au rameau humain et non à celui des chimpanzés ou des gorilles

 

 

Orrorin tugenensis

 

-6

 

the molars of O. tugenensis were small compared to any of the australopithecine teeth. Their teeth also had very thick enamel..

 

 

 

 

 

SUBFAMILY: Ardipithecus

Ardipithecus ramidus

 

-5,8 to

-4,4

Ethiopia

Extremely thin enamel by hominid standards.

relatively large anterior dentition

Hominid-like canines are present. These are low, blunt, and less projecting than the canines of all other known apes. Upper and lower incisors are larger than those of the Australopithecines, but are smaller than those of chimpanzees. Additionally, the lower molars are broader than those of a comparably-sized ape.

This character state can thus be considered transitional between apes and Australopithecines.

The teeth are intermediate between those of earlier apes and A. afarensis, but one baby tooth is very primitive, resembling a chimpanzee tooth more than any other known hominid tooth. Other fossils found with ramidus indicate that it may have been a forest dweller.

Height 122 cm

 

Ardipithecus kadabba

 

-5,8

Ethiopia

clearly hominid-like such as the presence of a well-defined anterior fovea on the lower third premolar and lower canine variants with high mesial crown shoulders, distal tubercles and apical wear.

In addition, the shape and orientation of the canines and lower premolars in living and fossil apes produce a complex that has a honing function. Honing is a mechanism that sharpens the rear edge of the upper canine across the outer face of the lower premolar as the teeth come together during the chewing process.

 

 

 


 

SUBFAMILY: Australopithecinae

 



Austrolopithecus

 

 

 

small-to-moderate sized incisors; large, flat molars with little shear potential; a ratio of first to third molar area low compared with extant apes, but generally higher than those of Miocene apes; thick tooth enamel; and thick mandibular corpora

Alimentation: hard, brittle foods including some fruits and nuts, and soft, weak foods such as flowers and buds; but again, they were not well-suited to breaking-down tough pliant foods like stems, soft seed pods, and meat.

Both abrasive and non-abrasive foods

Harder, more brittle foods at the expense of softer, tougher ones early on

 

Gracile Austrolopithecus (Austrolopithecus anamensis)

 

-4,2 to

-3,9

Kenya

first indications of thicker molar enamel in a hominid

Ardipithecus ramidus

Gracile Austrolopithecus  (Kenyanthropus

Platyops)

 

-3,5 to -3,2

Kenya

broad flat face with a toe bone

very close to homo habilis

doubt: it may also be a Austrolopithecus Anamensis , a Afarensii or even a homo Rudolfsis !

 

Gracile Austrolopithecus  (Austrolopithecus Africanus)

 

-3,3 to

 -2,3

East and south Africa

soft fruits and leaves

increase in postcanine tooth size, which by itself, would suggest an increase in the sizes and abrasiveness of foods

cranial volume between 420 and 500 cc

The back teeth were a little bigger than in afarensis The shape of the jaw is now fully parabolic, like that of humans, and the size of the canine teeth is further reduced compared to afarensis

Temporal muscles are similar in size to that of A. afarensis, but a larger parietal surface requires no posterior or nuchal crests to accommodate them. Maxillary premolars are enlarged and molariform. In general the molar occlusal surface is greatly enlarged and premolars are expanded to function as additional molars. Canine and incisors are relatively small.. The mandible is larger and more robust than in A. afarensis. The palate is less prognathic and the position of the cheek teeth in relation to the zygomatics and muscles of mastication are shifted to increase mechanical effectiveness. Lateral borders of the nasal aperture are reinforced to form anterior pillars of bone that sustain additional forces during mastication

 

Gracile Austrolopithecus  (Austrolopithecus Afarensii)

 

-4 to

-2,9

 

hard and perhaps abrasive foods

Cranial capacity varied from about 375 to 550 cc

Height between 107 cm and 152 cm

The lateral corner of the supraorbital torus is vertically thicker than both common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus).

The roof of the supraorbital torus slopes evenly up the frontal squama, rather than being separated by a sulcus, which is common in the African apes.

The bone of the squama is thicker than the African apes.

The outside of the squama that forms the internal wall of the temporal fossa slopes inward toward the midline, rather than being vertical as in the African apes.
The upper border of this sloping internal wall ends in a temporal line that runs parallel to the back of the supraorbital torus and then angles strongly towards the midline rather than swinging backward at the outside corner of the supraorbital torus and not parallel to it, as in the African apes.

The canines retain the primitive form of marked difference between sexes, with the males distinguished by greater size and higher, more tapered crowns. The anterior teeth of afarensis are quite large, and among the largest known for any hominid, and similar to chimpanzees, although relatively narrower labioloingually. The differ from chimpanzees, however, in that the hominid maxillary incisors reflect the plesiomorphic condition in which the lateral incisor is much smaller than the medial one.

 

Deep impressions showing pronounced heel strike.

Lateral transmission of force from the heel to the base of the lateral metatarsal.

A well-developed medial longitudinal arch.

Adducted big toe, in front of the ball of the foot and parallel to the other digits.

A deep impression for the big toe commensurate with toe-off.

 

The small skull exhibits flaring mastoid processes containing large sinuses. Attachments of robust muscles on the skull surface are marked by easily recognized lines and elevated crests. A. afarensis skulls have a powerful musculature for mastication and shoulder stability. Markings for the temporalis muscle (the temporal line) are distinct and indicate that temporal muscles covered most of the parietal surfaces. If the right and left temporal muscles were large enough to meet along the sagittal suture, the suture would be hidden by a bony sagittal crest. The relative strength of the shoulder and neck musculature is reflected in the robusticity of the mastoid process and nuchal crests.

A. afarensis postcranial anatomy, like the skull, is a mosaic of pongid and human traits. The pelvis and lower limbs are more human than ape, and the shoulder and upper limbs are more ape than human. The scapula suggests a shoulder orientation more like that of a climbing ape than a human. The relative length of the thumb is comparable to a modern human hand. Pongid-like characters include distal phalanges in the hand that terminate in relatively slender apical heads, strongly developed flexor sheath ridges on the proximal and middle phalanges, and curved proximal phalanges. Joint surface characters of the hand as well as the foot, are also a mixture of similarities to modern humans and modern pongids (Aiello and Dean, 1990). The form and orientation of the ankle, the emphasis on dorsiflexion, incipient development of a longitudinal arch, and reduction in opposability of the first toe are characteristics of a habitual biped. The pelvis is clearly that of a biped, and the leg and foot, although not completely modern, differ from apes in the direction of bipedal adaptations. Pongid characters of the feet include relatively long and curved phalanges on digits two through five

 

 

 

Gracile Austrolopithecus (Australopithecus bahrelgazali)

 

-3,4 to

-3

Tchad

 

 

Gracile Austrolopithecus (Australopithecus garhi)

 

-2,5

Ethiopia

large size of the anterior teeth, exceeding those of the largest australopithecines.

The lower face is prognathic with procumbent incisors. Canine roots are placed quite laterally to the nasal aperture margin. The premaxillary surface is separated from the nasal floor by a blunt ridge and is transversely and sagittally convex. The palate is vertically thin. The zygomatic roots originate above P4/M1. The dental arcade is U-shaped, with slightly divergent dental rows. The temporal lines encroach deeply on the frontal, past the midsupraorbital position and likely met anterior to bregma. The postglabellar frontal squama is depressed in a frontal trigon. The localized frontal sinus is limited to the medial one-third of the supraorbital surface. There is marked postorbital constriction. The parietal bones have a well-formed, bipartite, anteriorly positioned sagittal crest that divides above lambda. Cranial capacity of approximately 450 cc The relative lengths of the arms and legs of garhi are more reminiscent of the first humans.

 

Australopithecus afarensis

Robust Austrolopithecus = Paranthropus

(Austrolopithecus Robustus)

 

-2 to

-1,5

 

Hard-object feeders

Capacity for the cranium was around 530 ml

massive face is flat or dished, with no forehead and large brow ridges. It has relatively small front teeth, but massive grinding teeth in a large lower jaw. Most specimens have sagittal crests.

The mandible is more robust and there is an extensive addition of bone mass in the body of the mandible. The anterior portion of the temporal muscle is emphasized and enlarged, with its added fibers meeting in the sagittal plane where a crest forms that does not continue to the occipital area. Other muscles of mastication are enhanced and the zygomatic processes are massive and flaring. The face is shortened by movement of the palate and cheek teeth even farther behind the zygomatics. This produces maxillae with zygomatic processes positioned forward in a "dished" face, that is one with a concave profile.

 

 

Robust Austrolopithecus = Paranthropus

(Austrolopithecus Boisei)

 

-2,0 to -1,2

 

It represents the extreme of massive molarization of cheek teeth, specialized for some type of mastication that utilized large, flat, crushing surfaces. The massive mandible has even greater bone mass in the mandibular body than does that of A. robustus. The large anterior portion of the temporal muscle produces a large sagittal crest which, although it does not extend to the occipital region, is located near the back of the sagittal region, resulting in long anterior temporal muscle fibers. If strength and action of a muscle are governed by the length and cross-section size of the muscle mass, this appears to be a maximization of anterior temporal muscle strength

the cranium has sagittal and nuchal crests, a well developed mastoid process, and a strikingly broad and robust face. The orbits are wider than they are high and the zygomatic arches are laterally flared. Capacity for the cranium was from 410 to 530 ml

hard-object feeders

 

 

 

Robust Austrolopithecus = Paranthropus)

(Australopithecus aethiopicus)

 

-2,6 to

-2,3

East Africa

widely flaring zygomatic arches

The prominent sagittal crest running along the midline at the top of the skull is the largest ever discovered in the human lineage. Both of these features were adaptations for heavy chewing, and the cheek teeth are correspondingly large

smallish cranial volume of 410 ml

hard-object feeders

 

 

 

 

SUBFAMILY: Homininae

http://www.archaeologyinfo.com


Homo

 

 

 

Homo, retaining a more primitive chimpanzee-like face and dentition, exhibits reduced projection of canine, non-sectorial P3, and expanded brain size. Changes in these two anatomical complexes, canine teeth and brain volume, transform cranial and facial anatomy from pongid to human. Since early humans do not share the expanded cheek teeth, they represent a different niche, and probably a different lineage from Australopithecus.

 

Homo (Homo Habilis)

 

-2,4 to

 -1,5

 

Homo habilis is a small hominid characterized by comparatively small and narrow cheek teeth, a narrow mandible, a larger cranial capacity (600 to 800 cm3), and a bipedal locomotor anatomy. Hands are still robust with relatively long arms, reminiscent of their suspensory ancestry. Legs are short and feet are surprisingly modern

nuchal crests are weak and the mastoid process is small

may be included in Homo Rudolfsis

 

 

Tools:

Oldowan tools are characterized by a lack of standardization, that is, they are fabricated for function with relatively little stereotyping in form. The manual skill required in their manufacture is rudimentary and easily mastered by a modern human with a few minutes practice. Part of this artifact assemblage consists of objects with naturally useful properties; oval stones for hammers or naturally sharp edges for chopping. Such artifacts are recognized as "utilized" artifacts when they exhibit signs of damage or wear through usage. A manuport is an object that appears to have been transported from some distant source but bears no evidence of modification. The term "artifact" also includes objects thought to be formed by human manufacture, either as tools or as by-products. The term "tool" or "implement" is reserved for artifacts whose trimming scars or polish suggests modification for usage. Flakes trimmed from a core to make a tool are "debitage" if they exhibit no scars of utilization. Flakes that bear evidence of use (damage scars, polishing) are classified as "utilized flakes." Common Oldowan tools include burins, choppers, discoids, polyhedrons, scrapers, and spheroids. Utilized artifacts include hammer-stones, pebbles, and flakes. Manuports are common. Flake debitage marks sites of tool manufacture.

 

Homo (Homo Rudolfsis)

 

-2,4

 

Features which distinguish the specimen from habilis:

A slight supraorbital torus across the forehead with no sulcus or depression behind it.

A much longer face, with the upper part narrower than the middle.

The maxilla is squared off rather than rounded, with a very short, shallow palate.

Evidence of much more megadont postcanines.

 

 

Homo (Homo Ergaster)

 

 

 

 

 

Homo (Homo Georgicus)

 

-1,7

Georgia

1,5 meter

cranial volume between 600 to 680 cc

 

 

Homo (Homo Erectus)

 

- 1,8 to -0,3

Africa, Asia, and Europe

 

cranial volume between 750 and 1225 cc

Early erectus specimens average about 900 cc, while late ones have an average of about 1100 cc

 

 

 

 

 

Homo Rudolfsis

Homo cepranensis

 

-0,9 to -0,7

Italy

 

 

Homo (Homo Heidelbergis)

 

-0,5

Germany/ France/ Greece / Ethiopia

·                  An increase in brain size (early Homo approximately 900 cc, heidelbergensis specimens approximately 1200cc).

·                  A shift from the widest part of the brain case from the cranial base to the parietal regions.

·                  The rear of the cranial vault becomes more vertical.

·                  A gradual reduction in cranial robusticity.

·                  A decline in postcranial robusticity also.

·                  A tendency for a shift from shorter more robust stature to taller more leaner bodies.

 

Homo (Homo florensis)

 

 

 

1 meter tall with a brain size of 417cc:

dwarf form of Homo erectus

used stone tools and fire, and hunted dwarf elephants also found on the island

 

Homo (Homo Neantherdalis)

 

-250 kyr to -25 kyr

Europe

1.                   Neanderthals show a very distinctive craniofacial morphology relative to modern human populations.

2.                   Significant midfacial prognathism. Features involved in this prognathism include a very anterior midface, retreated zygomatics, anterior position of the dentition, and the anterior position of the nasal aperture.

3.                   Presence of a suprainiac fossa.

4.                   A mastoid crest located behind the external auditory meatus.

5.                   A juxtamastoid eminence located behind the mastoid crest, and often larger than the mastoid process.

6.                   An occipital torus (a horizontal occipital torus with uniform vertical dimensions with little occipital protuberance).

7.                   distinctive features for :

8.                   - Early Neanderthals (approximately 250 kyr to 130 kyr): The cranial fragments gives an estimated cranial capacity of 1300 to 1450 cc.

  1. - Upper Paleolithic Neanderthals (approximately 130 kyr to 45 kyr), A receding forehead: large cranial capacity from 1500 to over 1600 cc).

10.                and

- late surviving Neanderthals ( after 45 kyr). In support of the assimilation theory is evidence that these Neanderthals were evolving in a way that was leading them to the modern human condition. For example on adult found in vindija (from 32 to 42 kyr:

  1. A reduced midface prognathism and a less projecting upper face.
  2. Thinner and less projecting supraorbitals.
  3. A narrower nasal aperture, more prominent nasal spine, and a smaller facial height below it.
  4. A reduced breadth for the anterior teeth.
  5. The absence of occipital bunning.
  6. Thinner cranial bones.
  7. Definite presence of a mental eminence (though not prominent).
  8. level of technology (late Vindija) is identified as Aurignacian, which have generally been considered a H. sapiens industry. It means that either the Aurignacian industry was transmitted to the Neanderthals from incoming humans, or the industry developed independently in both populations.

19.                 

 

 

Homo (Homo Sapiens idaltu)

 

-  160 000

Ethiopia

large and robust, with a cranial capacity estimated at 1450 cubic centimetres, larger than most modern humans. The skull is long and high in lateral view, and White et al. (2003) list a number of features in which it is near or beyond the limit of modern humans (the occipital angle, mastoid height, palate breadth). Viewed from above, its length exceeds any from a sample of over 3000 modern humans, but one width measurement is below the modern human average. The brow ridge is not prominent and is within the modern human range.

 

Homo rhodesiensis'

 

-200000 to -125,000

Zambia

very robust, with large brow ridges and a receding forehead.. The brain size was about 1280 cc

 

Homo (Homo Sapiens)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Technological level

 

Mode I Emphasis is on simple flakes, cores, and choppers (Oldowan, Clactonian). Flake tools are unstandardized in form.
Mode II Direct percussion techniques produce very large flakes and artifacts have standardized forms (Acheulean).
Mode III Emphasis is on flakes produced from prepared cores (Mousterian, Stillbay).
Mode IV Emphasis is on blades and burins.
Mode V` Emphasis is on microliths.
Mode VI Includes ground (polished) stone tools and pottery. A great variety of lithics are present, but emphasis is often on blades. Grinding stones for preparing flour from cereals are often

This vocabulary can be combined with that of European archaeology:

Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) -
Early (Lower) Paleolithic
Mode I and Mode II lithics.
Analogous to Early Stone Age in Africa.

Middle Paleolithic
Mode III lithics.
Generally analogous to Middle Stone Age in Africa. Although Mode IV technology is rare in Africa, it is known from both MSA and LSA African assemblages.

Late (Upper) Paleolithic
Mode IV lithics.
Generally analogous to Late Stone Age in Africa.

Mesolithic
Mode V lithic technology.
Neolithic
Mode VI technology.

This terminology does not work well for all geographic regions. For example, the Paleolithic of Eastern Asia lacks a typical Mode II technology. The Eastern boundary of Mode II lithic distribution across Asia and Europe is called Movius' Line (after Movius)